Climate Change

As humans seek to invent more technologies to improve the lives of people and make things more convenient and effective, we do not seem to realize that we are slowly harming the earth and our planet.

Although it may not affect us now, it will cause a much larger catastrophe later and lead to the destruction of nature. Hence, today I will be educating you on the effects of climate change, the impacts, and the solutions to this global problem.

What is climate change?

Climate change, in simple terms, is a long-term permanent change in the weather patterns that define Earth climates, such as precipitation, temperature, and wind patterns. These natural weather fluctuations are mainly caused by Man’s destructive activities.

As a result of this unpredictable and unbalancing climate of Earth, the sustainability of the planet’s ecosystems and the future of mankind is under threat.

Biden plans to fight climate change in a way no U.S. president has done  before
Activites that lead to climate change

Note: Climate change is different from global warming. Climate change refers to the increasing changes in the weather patterns, including warming and the side effects of warming.

Causes of climate change

1.Humanity ‘s dependence on fossil fuels

Humans use fossil fuels and non-renewable energy as it is convenient and efficient. When fossil fuels are burned, they produce a large amount of carbon dioxide, which traps heat in the atmosphere and contributes to climate change.

What are the Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels? | Linquip

Fossil fuels are also non-renewable energy, which could result in an energy crisis when the supply of energy is insufficient to meet the demands. You can view my blog on Energy Crisis here:

https://jordanfoggo.com/index.php/2020/06/28/energy-crisis/

2. Deforestation and logging

Tropical trees, like all plants, produce oxygen and take in carbon dioxide(greenhouse gas) during photosynthesis. However, when trees are cut down and burned for land space, their stored carbon is released into the air.

Rivers in the Sky: How Deforestation Is Affecting Global Water Cycles -  Yale E360

there are also lesser trees to transpire and there will be less evaporation, which results in the climate being warm and dry.

3.Volcanic eruptions

Volcanic eruptions are a double-edged sword, as during major eruptions, as volcanic gases like sulfur dioxide can cause global cooling, but volcanic carbon dioxide promotes global warming and climate change.

Air pollution by volcano Bardarbunga lasting for month - ESKP

4. Melting of permafrost( An Impact and further aggravated Cause)

The melting of permafrost is caused by climate change, and it’s a natural process. Permafrost is solid ground that remains under 0C for a long time. (like ice)As Earth’s climate warms, the permafrost is thawing.

What is Permafrost and How is it Emitting Methane? | Earth.Org - Past |  Present | Future

When the ice in the permafrost melts, plants that grow on the permafrost(organic carbon) start to decompose. This releases greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere.

Impacts of climate change

  1. rising temperatures (Global warming)

Global warming and rising temperatures will not only lead to a rise in the Earth’s atmosphere, but it also triggers a reaction of climatic change around the world.

A warmer climate leads to the water cycle slowing down, changing weather patterns, worsening many types of disasters including storms, floods, droughts, and melting polar ice caps.

Iranian Architect Designs Unique Structure to Save Emperor Penguins and  Fight Climate Change

2. Social and economic impacts

Climate change will have heavy consequences for developing countries if they do not resolve or mitigate the problem. Damage to infrastructure and human health by natural disasters imposes heavy consequences such as a loss of natural resources, risks on human health, and affect on sectors that rely on nature reserves and tourism.

Impacts of Climate Change on the Economy and Society - Iberdrola
as shown above, there are many devastating impacts that could seriously impact the economy and the people

3. Threats on wildlife

The constant change of the weather and temperature of the habitats force animals and plants to either move or adapt. However, climate change is happening so fast that many animals are even struggling to cope. Moreover, deforestation and natural disasters further aggravate the situation.

Effects of Climate Change | Threats | WWF

Solutions(Mitigating the threats)

1.Renewable energy

How is the Coronavirus Pandemic Affecting the Renewable Energy Industry?

We should work on developing renewable energies to be more efficient and cost-saving so they could be our main source of energy. Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and Biomass could be the solution. They can be implemented with minimal environmental impacts, and often offer benefits.

2.Marine conservation

Ocean and Marine Wildlife Conservation Initiatives

The oceans are the largest absorbers of greenhouse gases and are homes to millions of wildlife. By establishing strict laws to prevent pollution and responsible fishing, we will be able to save our ocean, allowing it to greatly aid us in our fight against climate change.

3.Tropical forest restoration

It is difficult to stop deforestation completely, but we can practice reforestation like the Japenese: planting 2 seeds for 1 tree logged. We should also preserve the endangered and certain species. This could be a long-term practice, so we need to manage adaptively for results and outcomes.

Clear-cut tropical forest revitalized with industrial orange peel waste |  Boing Boing

4.Carbon capture and storage

There are some natural carbon storage places, such as the ocean and trees, but they take up large tracts of land. SOme scientists are experimenting with caputirng CO2 from power plants with biomass plants using technology.

Carbon Capture for the Last Mile | The Nature Conservancy

Grown plant matter will be burned underground and not ancient fossils-moreover, power can be produced while fighting climate change.

Conclusion

To fight climate change, we all should use technologies to help us in our fight, not against our fight. A good solution would be to use technologies to develop better and more efficient renewable energies and protect our Earth.

New Partnership Combines Best of Nature and Technology to Fight Climate  Change | Save The View

Challenge: I challenge you to cultivate habits that will help to play a role in resolving climate change. Plant more flowers, start a garden, carpool or take public transport instead of driving, only buy environmentally-friendly products and appliances, lastly write a letter to your state government, stating the importance of climate change and propose a solution.

We all have our part to play in climate change as long as we are living on this planet. Thus, let’s work together towards a better world and future.

Credits:

https://ec.europa.eu/clima/change/consequences_en

https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/climate-change/causes-of-climate-change

https://solarimpulse.com/climate-change-solutions

(if your content is featured and you don’t like it, please email jordanlim007@gmail.com)

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Poverty

What is poverty?

an example of a slum

poverty is not making enough or having enough income for a person’s basic needs, such as food, clothing and shelter. They may suffer from hunger, malnourishment, diseases or sickness, and may live in rural areas.In today’s world, poverty can also be extended to include access to transportation, healthcare, education.

some people who live in poverty may not necessarily always live in rural areas,(e,g slums, farms, ranches, villages), they also live in urban areas too. for example, locals in Hong Kong are homeless and living in poverty as the standard of living is very high and property prices are rising. since they allocate a lot of money to pay their rent, they might still live in poverty and not be able to afford basic needs although they live in an urban area.

hong kong housing issue(leads to poverty)

Causes of poverty

there are certain causes of poverty, and it may be the living conditions that one lives in, the infrastructure, or they were born in such a circumstance. we will look at the causes of poverty and how these factors and conditions affect people.

  • lack of infrastructure or poor facilities

Many rural areas, slums and villages do not have properly maintained facilities or infrastructure.For example, there are no roads, lights, internet, cables, and certain facilities, such as hospitals, schools, toilets. when there are no routes or way to get to urban areas, this can isolate communitties living in rural areas.you might have to travel far for basic facitlies such as to get food, water or healthcare.

travelling far not only takes time, it also costs money. Besides, you might not be able to make a living or get a job in areas with poor infrastructure, and this limits oppopturnity. Isolation limits opportunity, and without opportunity, families may find it difficult or extreme to escape poverty.

  • Little or no access to livelihood or jobs

Without a job or way to earn money for a person’s subsistence, people will face poverty. but this is aggravated in rural and isolated areas, as even though you may have the skills or knowledge for a specific job, you may not even get the opportunity to find the job in areas with poor amenities.

  • Poor education/ lack of literacy

children who are born in rural areas may not be able to go to school due to their family needing their children to work and not having sufficient money; or due to poor infrastructure that there is no school in their area.Although some boys can go to school, many parents don’t see a benefit in sending girls to school.

Education can be a life-changing event, as with education and knowledge, it opens doors to the outside world and to resources and skills, which is essential just not to help them survive, but to thrive.

students getting education in rural areas
  • Conflict and Inequality

conflict, civil wars, and unrest can cause poverty in certain ways. Civil wars, protests, and violence can destroy infrastructure, cause people to flee, forcing families to leave their jobs, homes, break up communities and social networks, increased unemployment and inflation.

Inequality means that certain people are discriminated and they are not treated equally as other groups of people.For example, some groups of people may be sexually or racially discriminated, and they do not get a similar chance as others, or they are looked down upon in the community.

  • Climate change

climate change like droughts, floods, severe storms, earthquakes disproportionely impact communitties living in poverty already, and when climate change leads to natural disasters, they have to take along their assets or leave them behind. Climate change impact rural areas and communities as most of them rely on the land for farming, hunting, gathering to make a living and bring back food.

Climate change disrupts livelihood, depletes food and water resources, forces families to flee from their homes, and may even cause them to lose their jobs.

a tsunami hitting a city(natural disaster)

How does poverty impact people?

  • 1. Basic necessities is a worry everyday

Poverty is not just having sufficient food or missing a meal daily. Families with poverty struggle with sickness, illnesses, food insecurity, hunger, and malnourishment. When families don’t have food, or they overwork themselves every day for little food, their health and livelihood suffer, and they might suffer severe health conditions later on.

if families are not able to break out of this poverty cycle, they will be trapped in a poverty cycle and this will repeat generation after generation. This might be why they say that one way out of poverty is education, or through life-changing opportunities like a stable job or starting their own business.

  • 2. education and schooling(learning)

If the first generation of a family falls into poverty, and it continues into the next, this could lead to a repeating cycle of poverty as this may mean that families do not have the money to send their children to school or need them to work. If the children are not educated, they cannot further their studies and have the opportunity to get a better job. Hence, education is important as it is a way to escape from poverty.

-quote by Nelson Mandela

for example, take this boy from Cambodia who is linguistic and knows 16 languages. He was selling things on a beach when a Chinese woman approached him. the boy was helping his family to earn a living and they were barely getting by. the video uploaded got popular and a wealthy Cambodian businessman took pity on them and helped to find them a new home, pay off their bills, and find his father a better job. China even offered him a scholarship to come to a school to study. Hence, education and publicity can change one’s life, given that they are willing.

multilingustic camobodian boy, Thuck Salik
  • 3. effects of poverty on health

without proper sanitation, amenities around their home, or in their house, children are especially vulnerable to life-threatening diseases such as diarrhea and intestinal infections. families who live in a properly constructed home with shelter and protection are less likely to fall ill to any diseases and are better equipped with the conditions to recover from any illness they might contract.

It goes without saying that the mental health of individuals and families is greatly improved when physical health concerns are taken away.

proper santiation and toliet amenties

How can we help those in poverty(solutions)

1.invest in high quality child care and free/subsidised early education

as mentioned many times in my previous points, education is a major barrier that prevents the poor from even reaching the middle class, and they will be stuck in a poverty cycle without opportunities or education. As the saying goes, the poor get poorer, the rich get richer. investing in education at an early age will give many more children opportunities and expand their horizons, and allow them to further their studies and graduate with a degree.in turn, when they grow up they will also contribute back to society and this can break the poverty cycle for a generation.

2.create more jobs/provide more job and equal employment opportunities

another way out of poverty is a well-paying and stable job.to kick-start job growth, the government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding proper infrastructure and facilities, renovating abandoned or poorly maintained housing, having programs that help or creates more jobs for people, and boost the national economy.

3.create awareness

to create awareness of poverty and make people more aware and known of it, we can publicize and create recognition of the impact and effects that people suffer from. for example, many businesses, associations, and funding programs around the world have hosted fundraisers in order to create awareness of the impact and to increase the general consciousness of the issue.

when there are more people aware of the issue, more will also be willing to help and start their own programs or institutions. Thus, there will be more opportunities for people living in poverty, and organizations and programs can reach out to help them, whether it be through providing food, jobs, building better homes and infrastructure, or education.

credits to these posts(sources):

https://reliefweb.int/report/world/top-9-causes-global-poverty

https://moveforhunger.org/the-effects-of-poverty#:~:text=The%20effects%20of%20poverty%20can,or%20the%20ability%20to%20work.&text=The%20effects%20of%20poverty%20are,insecurity%2C%20hunger%2C%20and%20malnutrition.

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technology abuse/technology problems

the rapid advancements in technology in recent years have brought about numerous changes in fields such as education, communication, and medicine. many processes that used to be done manually by humans can now be undertaken effectively by computers and other devices which are supported by strong technological infrastructure and networks. we are not just active users of technology, we are dependent on it. however, as glamorous as technology may sound, there are some cons with it, and unfortunately, any people misuse and abuse it to benefit themselves. today, I will be blogging about how technology is abused in certain ways and the flaws of it.

how technology can affect us

  1. social skills/social disconnect

the use of technology and communicating online may result in a lack of social and communication skills. With technology so advanced nowadays, you can just pick up your phone to message or call someone to socialise.this reduces the need for communicating face to face. social and communication skills are needed in our daily lives, in school, and at work. despite vast advancements in technology, we still need to learn to communicate despite how advanced technology might be.

When we replace real-life interaction with online communication, we lose the ability to read social cues like tone of voice, facial expression, body language, and direct wording. social skills are needed to present, in interviews, meetings, and in school, oral examinations, class presentations and maybe even giving talks as prefects or leaders in the hall. Thus we can see that technology cannot replace communication and social skills, and they are still necessary for our daily lives.

2. education

The internet has become a great tool for learning. Many schools and teachers are incorporating online learning and e-learning into their lessons. If you wanted to find information, you can just google it up instead of having to go to the library to find related materials or have to scan through the dictionary to find the meaning. With face to face interactive apps, courses and lessons can now even be conducted online. Yet, technology involvement dosent always guarantee the quality of education, Plagiarism and cheating have increased while analysis and critical thinking have declined. This puts young generation thinking abilities in jeopardy.

3.physical effects on our health

Among the most dangerous physical effects is addiction.Once you started, you cant stop. Adolescents and teenagers are glued to their mobile devices, be it in public, on transport, while eating, or even in the toilet. As a result, they move less as they stay at one spot constantly. And while they are playing games or scrolling through their mobile devices, it can be tempting to snack. Being absorbed by a laptop or a tablet, people tend to snack a lot, keep late hours and exercise less. The more time you sit in front of the PC, the lesser is the blood circulation in your body, not to speak of the neck and head pain. Moreover, sedentary life is the reason why many people have a curved backbone and bad posture as a result, as many like to lie down or sit in a relaxed position. This can lead to long term health issues such as eyesight problems, headaches, and long term health issues.

4.Cyberbullying and cybercrime

with the internet being so big with countless information and things out there, there is always a misuse of technology.

Cyberbullying has become even more common and bullies make use of social media apps to shame and bully people through the internet. And what is worse is that those bullies are able to create an anonymous account without the victim knowing who it is. The offenders either use text messages, social media or forums to reach out to the victim. The offenders may threaten to shame and post things that may not be true on the internet about the victims.
The internet is also a place where cyber crimes can take place. Many are unaware of fishy and suspicious sites that try to access our personal information. cams, hackers, phishing, have all become common on the internet. The suspects tried to phish and get access to our personal information by threatening us or giving a false excuse to give our personal and banking details to them. hey often target our user data,
including login credentials and credit card numbers. thus, when we are using the internet, we need to be vigilant and cautious about who we leak our personal information to.

5.technology creates dependencies

The evolution of technology in today’s world has created dependencies on our devices, tools, appliances. We have become so dependent on technology that sometimes it even reduces the need to learn skills. technology is incorporated into many aspects of our lives, in work, play, eat, and maybe even sleep. We always look for the fastest and most convenient ways to do things, and thus we rely on technology to get our tasks done fast and in an easy way. technology has made everything so convenient and easier. For example, teenagers nowadays might not even learn the skill to cook, as with a tap on our mobile devices we can get food delivered right to our doorstep.

Because of this new reliance, we are losing the ability to perform tasks in an organic and all-natural way.

how to be safe on the internet

with so many suspicious sites, websites, cyber-crimes, and cyberbullying online, it is hard to avoid all these especially when the internet is such a big site. thus, we will learn what we need to avoid and be precarious against through the internet, and what we need to be wary of. false information is everywhere, and we might not even know what we are reading is truthful or not. this is because this piece of information or news can be posted so easily on the internet, either on social media or fraudulent websites. we will learn how to identify these sites, and how to stay safe from them.

1. phishing and online scams

phising is a way to obtain private or personal sensitive information data, passwords, login details and banking credit details, by disgusing oneself as a truthsworthy entity. they might want to obtain this information for their own usage, to be able to gain access to your banking details,or to gain acesss to your other accounts, which is usually for your money . here are some examples of phishing and tactics they might use.

Phishing websites, emails, or messages may look like they’re from a corporation or company that you would know and trust. They may look like they’re from a bank, a credit card company, a social networking site, an online payment website or app, or an online store.this is to usually gain your trust first, as you would know they’re from a trustable company.

Phishing emails and texts often give you a reason to trick you into opening a link or opening an attachment. this is done to get your attention to the email and so that you wouldn’t just ignore it. the emails and texts are often free offers or free stuff, or they might say that you have some problems with your banking details. they usually threaten you by saying that it is only for a limited time, so this would get you anxious to get it done faster. here are some common examples and tactics that scammers use:

  • say they’ve noticed some suspicious activity or log-in attempts
  • claim there’s a problem with your account or your payment information
  • say you must confirm some personal information
  • include a fake invoice
  • want you to click on a link to make a payment
  • say you’re eligible to register for a government refund
  • offer a coupon for free stuff

here is an example of another email:

-they will use the names of trustable websites(sometimes even the logo)

-they will urge you to hurry and do it(this will expire in 24 hours)

-says that your password will expire in a limited time(trustable sites will usually give you time to change your password and it wont expire)

While, at a glance, this email might look real, it’s not. The scammers who send emails like this one do not have anything to do with the companies they pretend to be. Phishing emails can have real consequences for people who give scammers their information. And they can harm the reputation of the companies they’re spoofing.

2.false and fraudelent news

fake news, also known as junk news, hoax news, is a form of deliberate news spread through digital media, or through traditional media. the internet and the digital media has brought back and increased the usage of fake news. these news can be about what is going on in the world, or something that might be threatening, and cause a lot of commotion and anxiousness in the community. these news may be often posted on social media, or on frauldent sites that may be imposting other truthful news sites.Propaganda has been around for centuries, and the internet is only the latest means of communication to be abused to spread lies and misinformation rapidly to many other groups of people.

What Is Fake News?
There are two kinds of fake news:

Stories that aren’t true. These are entirely invented stories designed to make people believe something false, to buy a certain product, or to visit a certain website.

Stories that have some truth, but aren’t 100 percent accurate. For example, a journalist quotes only part of what a politician says, giving a false impression of their meaning. Again, this can be deliberate, to convince readers of a certain viewpoint, or it can be the result of an innocent mistake. this may result in others interpreting it wrongly, thus it is also harmful.

Social media platforms now give everyone the ability and power to post whatever they want, and whenever they want. Thus, this might be dangerous as many might abuse and misuse this ability. Often, many people do not check the source of the websites before forwarding it to people.

3. online privacy

when you sign up for social media platforms or apps, you may be asked to put some personal information about yourself, or you may want to disclose some information about yourself to others. every day, people give away their personal information online, whether it be their name and address, or their payment information. You need to know what’s going to happen to it, and that it’s not going to be used for anything other than the intended purpose.

If you’re relatively new to using the internet or don’t use it very often, then you might not be up to date on how platforms like social media sites work. Basically, when you sign up to a site like this, you have to give a certain amount of personal information, and information that you want to share with people. When you do this, you need to make sure you’re aware of what others can see, and what you don’t want to share isn’t being shared.

Solution and Conclusion

with the internet being so huge, and with tons of information and things posted every day, we cannot possibly wipe out all these false and fraudulent information on the internet. However, we can take precautions and steps to prevent these from happening to others, our friends, or ourselves. We should be aware of what we post, see, find on the internet, and not immediately trust these websites, emails, or texts. we need to remember that not everything on the internet is truthful, since it is so easy to gain access and post something on the internet.

In conclusion, the invention of technology has its pros and cons, good and bad. it is up to us on how we want to use the internet. thus, let us all work together to make the internet a better place, and let us make the internet a truthful, trustable, good place to learn, work, play for everyone.

Energy Crisis

the world population is constantly growing and demands are increasing. more e and more food and supplies are needed to meet the ever-growing population. to produce all these supplies, energy is needed. the most popular and common energy resource currently is fossil fuels. however, this source of energy is limited and while it does occur naturally, it is unrenewable. fossil fuels are used for industrial production, in machinery, used for vehicle fuel and for electricity, and in our daily lives. our energy supply is diminishing at such a rapid rate. scientists are using technology to try and find renewable sources of energy. if we run out of energy, imagine how big of an impact this would have on the world. thus, today we are diving into the topic of an energy crisis.

here are the factors of energy crisis that we will be learning about today:

what is a energy crisis?

what are the uses of energy?

what energy resources do we have?

is the level of energy consumption the same everywhere why do levels of energy consumption differ?

how does it impact us?(society, domestic, industrial, production)

how can an energy crisis be prevented/avoided? how can we solve this problem?

What is an energy crisis?

An energy crisis happens when the supply of energy(fossil fuels, oil, coal) is not able to meet the demands of society. fossil fuels help to produce electricity, power industrial factories, and machinery, and it is used in our everyday lives. An energy crisis will result in an increase in energy costs and people will find it harder to gain access to energy supply.

as countries continue to improve and expand their infrastructure, expand their industries and increase their standard of living due to growing affluence, more energy is needed to meet higher demand.

First, let us find out where does our energy come from.

Energy resources

When we turn on the television, the electricity that flows from the power socket to the television probably comes from a power station.But how do power stations generate electricty, and what do they use to produce this electricity?

to answer this question, we first need to look at energy resources. energy resources refers to anything that can be used for energy to do work, such as powering up buildings with electricity, or producing energy for industrial factories to function. An energy resource can be something that produces heat, electricty, or light.

natural energy resources can be renewable or non-renewable. renewable resources are resources that can be used without being depleted or can be restored naturally. An example of a renewable resource is solar energy, which uses solar panels to captures sunlight from the sun. Non-renewable resources are resources that cannot be replenished and have a limited quantity. although fossil fuels can be replenished naturally, they take millions of years to be formed and have to form by decayed plants and animals.

Different uses of energy

Domestic use

Electricity generated in power stations is delivered through power lines to homes for usage. Electricity is needed for many appliances in our home, such as the stove, fridge, air conditioner, nd our devices. besides using fossil fuels as energy to generate electricity, it is also refined to give us other products such as plastics, synthetic fibers, and synthetic rubbers. energy is also used for heat. many appliances also use heat as well, such as stoves, water heaters, nd more.

Industrial use

The industrial use of fossil fuels is the most common use of fossil fuels. they are used as an energy source to power machines in factories for the processing and manufacturing of goods. fossil fuels are burnt to produce electricity and energy to power up machines.

Transportation

Fossil fuels such as oil are used extensively in fuelling our transportation systems.the process of refining oil produces jet fuel, gasoline and diesel. Jet fuel is used to power aerolanes, gasoline is used in cars and diesel is used in heavy trucks.

Is the level of energy consumption the same everywhere?

Earlier, you learnt that an energy crisis is characterised by depleting fossil fuels reserves and an increase in energy costs. In this section, we will take a closer look at the world energy consumption and how differenet countries use energy.

energy consumption of the world

energy consumption refers to the amount of energy used. It differs between countries and regions. the northern hemisphere generally consumes more energy than the southern hemisphere. Most countries in the northern hemisphere such as the USA, Canada, France, and Russia, consume more than 150 million British thermal units of energy per capita. In the southern hemisphere, many countries consume less than 149 million British thermal units per capita. These countries include Brazil, Nigeria, India, and South Africa.

Now we will look at some countries energy consumption and the types of energy used.

This shows that China’s energy consumption per capita in 2009 was 1.1 tones of oil equivalent. this was lower than that of the USA and even Singapore. One reason for such low consumption of energy per capita in China is that the economies of the USA and Singapore developed much earlier than that of China, although it has been expanding rapidly the past few decades.

More than a third of China’s energy came from coal. In fact, it has one of the biggest coal reserves in the world and contributes to almost half of the world’s coal consumption. Many parts of China use coal bricks for cooking and heating purposes. Another one-third of its energy came from other sources including hydropower, nuclear, and solar power.

United States of America

In 2009, the United States of America energy consumption was more than four times of China, although China is a bigger country, and the rest of the world.

More than half of the USA energy consumption came from oil. Even though it is one of the top oil producers in the world, it consumes so much oil that it has to import 60 percent of the oil it uses. Most of the oil is used for trnasportation and vehicles. A small amount of energy came from coal-only 2 percent of the total energy sources. Much of the energy generated ffrom coal was replaced by other energy sources such as oil and natural gas after WW2.

how does an energy crisis impact us?

Industrial impact

Depletion of fossil fuel reserves

this would be the first factor that is affected, considering the rate that we are using these sources of energy. If we continue using fossil fuels at the rate that we do today, a shortage may occur.

Of all the fossil fuels, oil is the main energy source used in the industrialised world. If current trends in population growth, economic growth and energy use continue, oil supplies will decline unless new sources of oil are discovered.

There are a few reasons for declining fossil fuel reserves. First, oil wells are running dry. On example is the Daqing oilfield in China where oil output has been decreasing since 1997 after decades of oil production. Also, the cost of having to drill deeper into the ground to get oil makes it more unprofitable.

Fossil fuel reserves may one day be no longer sufficient to meet the world demand. Decreasing oil supplies may cause the price of producing the oil to rise and this will result in a higher cost of energy use. When the demand for fossil fuels cannot be met, we might have to find out other sources of energy or it would result in an energy crisis. More fossil fuel reserves may be discovered, but this would depend on technological advancements. For example, it is now possible to extract natural gas from shale gas reserves, which is natural gas trapped in shale, a sedimentary rock.

Increase in energy costs

When the demand for fossil fuels increases,the price of fossil fuels may rise due to higher demand. thecost of goods produced from fossil fuels will therefore increase.if we look at the historical prices of coal, and its impact on the price of coal. the widespread use of coal began in the 18th century during the Industrial Revolution. with the advances in transportation and machinery, coal became an important energy source.thus, this increase in demand for coal led to a gradual rise in its price since 1720.

As mentioned earlier, improved technology has made it possible to tap into more gas deposits such as shale gas. At present, only some countries are using more gas for their energy needs, for example, Japan and Singapore, however, if there Is an increase in the demand for gas by more countries in the future, this may drive up the price of gas.

Social and domestic impact of rising energy costs

As the energy consumption increases, blackouts may occur due to an unexpected power trip.however, in some countries, planned blackouts are used to decrease demand of elecricity and allow each household to only use a limited amount of electricty. by making electricity unavaliable for certain periods of the day, energy consumption is reduced to help the power supply network cope with the demand for electricity. Scheduled or planned blackouts are usually during extreme cold or hot seasons.

Frequent interruptions to electricty supply, regardless of whether it is planned, can be inconveninet for homes and businesses.

Some people are unable to keep up with rising energy costs. in some cases, electricty supply to certain homes may be cut off if people fail to pay their electricty bills. Not having access to electricity can be disatrous. if electricty is cut off, people are not able to shower, cook, watch TV, or basically anything that has to do with using electricity.

Increased costs of living

Cost of living refers to the price of goods and services that must be paid in order to mantain a certain standard of living.(e.g having sufficient food, showering, e.g)

the biggest impact of higher energy costs on goods may be that on food prices. energy is needed to power farm machinery and transport seeds, fertilisers and farm produce. It is also needed in factories to produce and package food for sale. A rise in energy costs will lead to an increase of producing food also.

increased energy costs will also lead to higher prices for basic necessities such as shelter and clothing, and other goods such as cars and computers, and services, such as education and healthcare, will also rise.producing goods in industries and factories require energy, and schools also use energy for electricity and other uses, and hospitals use even more energy for healthcare equipments. therefore, we may not be able to maintain our current standard of living.

Economic impact of rising energy costs

Reduced competitiveness

increased energy costs means that goods and services will be sold at a higher price if they want to receive the same amount of profit as before, as there will be increased cost of electricty, of raw materials, and transport. however this will mean that the volume of sales may drop as fewer people are able to afford the higher priced goods and services. an increase in price will reduce competitiveness between companies to attract businessses, customers or sales.

how can we avoid an energy crisis?

earlier, we learned that our supply of fossil fuels will run out soon if we continue to consume them at high rates. We need to use our energy resources in a sustainable manner or find new sources of energy.

1.reduce energy consumption

energy conservation in domestic homes

energy conservation refers to attempts to reduce energy consumption.this can be done through making certain choices and changes in our lifestyle and changing habits.How can we reduce consumption of energy in our houses?

One way is to ensure energy is not wasted , especially when it is not in use.

Some appliances have standby functions which will consume energy even when they are not in use, for example a computer that might have not been shut down can still consume energy. thus, when we are finished using appliances, we should shut them down completly or switch them off at the power socket.

We can also save a large amount of energy by decreasing the temperatures of our heaters or increasing the temperatures of our air conditioners. thus, these appliances will use less energy to function.

We can also choose a lifestyle that helps to save energy. For example, we can use public transport instead of cars. this reduces the number of vehicles on the road and the energy needed to power these vehicles.

2.Efficient usage of energy

using more energy efficient products or appliances will help to prevent energy from being wasted. it refers to the ability to reduce the amount of energy to provide the same level of energy service. however, these products or appliances might be more expensive as they are energy-saving.

Certain buildings or houses are also built to conserve energy, or have energy-efficient features implemented.these buildings are also sometimes known as green builidings.

some features of a energy-efficient building are:

-having solar panels installed on the top of the buildings

-these buildings often have many windows to allow natural sunlight in, so as to reduce the need of lightning, as they are designed for natural lightning, thus it reduces the use of artificial lightning.

– they also have energy-efficient heating and cooling systems, as well as appliances

-uses non-toxic and sustainable materials

-plants are often grown on top of the roofs along with solar panels(this makes use of the space on the roof)

3.Use alternative energy sources

As fossil fuels are a non renewable resource, strategies to avoid an energy crisis must go beyond reducing energy consumption and also include other alternative energy sources. Many countries have explored alternative energy sources, especially renewable energy, which is expected to contribute up to 50 percent of the world energy supply in the future. however, this comes with implications, such as expenses, and include other factors that may affect this sources as well.

some examples of renewable energy are solar, hydropower, wind and nuclear. however, some of these require certain factors and conditions to be able to produce energy. for example, solar panels only will produce energy in the daytime as it requires sunlight, and wind power requires wind to blow constantly. they also use up space and affect wildlife and nature. Nuclear plants are radioactive and leakages of radioactive waste can pose a threat to the environment.

Conclusion

energy, just like water and food, is limited, but it is in high demand, due to the ever-growing population, which is one of the biggest factors that affect these resources. a shortage of these resources mostly has the same impact on society and industries. ways and other alternatives of producing or using these resources are also introduced, but many implications come with it and this inconveniences people, as we want our things to be done quick and fast. thus, depleting resources is a worldwide issue, and we may have to find a way fast to manage the resources for the rapidly growing population.

Food shortage

what is food shortage?

Food shortage is similar to water shortage, it is when the supply does not meet the demands. This is mostly due to a big and growing population, where there is not enough food evenly distributed for everyone. This can be due to economic factors, and when the production of food is not enough to meet the demands of the people. Producing food for most of the parts also needs a lot of water especially for the crops.

What about meat and other foods that are produced by animals? These foods are even more water-intensive than crops. It takes more than 2,400 gallons of water to produce just 1 pound of meat. This is due to having to grow grains to feed the animals and that uses water as well. Thus, food production relies heavily on the water as well. If there is also a water shortage, food production will also be affected.

Causes of food shortage

1.Environmental factors

environmental factors have contributed greatly to food shortage. Climate change has contributed greatly to food production. Climate change is majorly caused by human activities and to some extent, natural activities. More greenhouse gases are being emitted which is breaking the ozone layer. Deforestation of forests is due to human pressure which has changed climatic patterns and rainfall seasons. Pollution comes in various forms; these forms include air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution. deforestation of agricultural lands has reduced the size and fertility of agriculture lands due to soil erosion.

As we can see, most of the environmental factors contribute to food shortage.Water pollution, air pollution, and land pollution all are factors which affect food shortage.

2.Economic factors

Economic factors affect the ability of farmers to engage in agricultural production. Poverty situations in many countries have reduced their capacity to produce food. They use poor farming methods that cannot yield enough, not even for substantial use. The rising cost of rice and other commodities has made it impossible for farmers to afford it even in where they live. Thus, poverty has made farmers continue to use outdated farming practices, low yielding seeds and poor agriculture infrastructure which lowers their yield and production capacity even more. The global financial crisis have led to a further increase in food prices.

3.Food wastage/ Affluence

Affluence is the state of having a great deal of money: wealth. How does affluence lead to food shortage you may ask? When people have more money and are able to splurge more on luxuries and more expensive things, this may lead them to consume more expensive food/ bigger amounts of food. Consuming costly food will lead to food wastage if the consumers do not finish the food.

4.Poor infrastructure

Poor infrastructure is when there are no basic structures that are essential in a country, for example, roads, working taps and toliets, lights, and structures that are necessary for the development of a nation in all aspects. Poor infrastructure makes it difficult for people to get water and food, due to there being too much food in one region and no food in another region.

Crops need water to grow. Irrigation infrastructure is unaffordable to most farmers in developing countries. A lack of water and sanitation infrastructure are leading causes of hunger and malnutrition.

How can we prevent food shortages/solve this issue?

1.Increase farm efficiency/crop yield

As much as a third of the world food produced globally is wasted, if just half of that waste is reduced, and evenly distributed among those who are going hungry-could be fed.

This is why sometimes it is better to start off with the basics. The majority of the world farmers are uneducated and have basic knowledge about farming, which is why they rely on inefficient farming methods passed down from the generations.

The Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture has been experimenting with crop yields for years. They have taken simple initiatives to introduce simple, low tech yet efficient methods of farming which will yield more crops. Thus by investing in training and educational programs in modern farming techniques, farms can be efficiently increased with minimal investment without the need to turn to more controversial techniques that can damage the local (and global) ecosystem. By fixing productivity issues locally, distribution also becomes far less of a challenge – as local farmers can then supply their local communities, while also helping boost their local economies.

2.Reduce food wastage

Although food is also lost throughout the supply chain, it is estimated the greatest losses are at the consumer’s level. A large amount of food produced is thrown away or has gone bad or spoilt. A large amount of food is also thrown away for not meeting retail cosmetic standards, such as if fruits and vegetables are imperfect or look ugly, they will not be sold as they are seen as spoilt. However, just if the food looks bad, this doesn’t necessarily mean it is spoilt.

Therefore, to reduce food wastage, many people and organizations are taking initiatives to reduce food wastage such as starting programs to turn food scraps not used for consumption into compost.there are also programs to educate the public more about food wastage.

3. Support better land management

Already 500 million people live in areas where fertile land has become a desert because of climate, deforestation, or due to inappropriate agriculture. When land is diminished, it’s bad for people and our environment. It becomes less productive, and also yields fewer crops and harvests, limits what we can grow makes us more susceptible to climate shocks (such as droughts, dust storms, heatwaves, floods) and can become dangerous (landslides, for example). It also reduces the amount of carbon that can be captured by soil, which worsens climate change. In turn, climate change degrades land further.

one of the options is to plant a variety of crops instead of further degrading soil by just planting one. a variety of crops planted also means that not all the crops will die out when there is a certain disease, disaster, extreme weather conditions as some crops might not be as heavily affected as other crops as they might have certain adapatations to adapt to these changes, and thus not all of them will be destroyed when a certain change comes.

4. Return to traditional methods

With so many new complex technologies and new modern methods of yielding more harvest with technology, and with so many people trying to find ways of agriculture that yield more harvest, maybe it is better to start off with the basics. The desire for sustainable agricultural solutions is also helping drive the increase in organic agriculture over recent decades. By avoiding artificial fertilizers and pesticides, organic farming advocates say, it can be much better for the environment. As organic food continues to increase in popularity in developed world markets, it can also make good business sense a study showed that organic produce was as much as 35 percent more profitable than conventional farming, despite typically requiring more labor, which also means more jobs.

The essential difference between organic and conventional farming is that conventional farming relies on chemical intervention to fight pests and weeds and provide plant nutrition. Organic farming relies on natural principles like biodiversity and composting instead to produce healthy, abundant food. However, even though it may seem to many that conventional farming is a faster way and more effective method to yield more harvest, it harms the environment and other animals. Organic farming practices reduce pollution, conserve water, reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility, and use less energy. Farming without pesticides is also more suitable for nearby birds and animals as well as people who live close to farms.

Organic is not simply a return to the old days before artificial fertilizers and pesticides, however. Recent improvements in organic techniques have also shown that it boosted organic farming’s productivity by as much as 36 percent over the last 30 years. But the picture isn’t entirely positive – a 2014 study found that organic yields are still on average 19.2 percent lower than industrial agriculture.

(As seen from the graph here, it is shown that organic wheat uses more land, but it has fewer gas emissions from cultivation and also yields more. )

Even this doesn’t give the full picture, however – certain crops, such as leguminous vegetables, see similar yields from organic as from conventional techniques. The key is to pick the right method of farming for the right crop, livestock, and local geological and climate conditions, and the outcome of organic farming might even be the same as industrial agriculture.

With organic agriculture often labour-intensive, highly profitable and requiring little investment in fertilizers, it could yet prove a promising solution to the developing world’s twin challenges of improving farming efficiency and maintaining rural employment.

Bonus: how is COVID-19 affecting food supply and food shortage?

In spite of COVID-19, essential items and food are now are even in higher demand as countries go into lockdown and the economy crashes. More and more people lose their jobs and businesses fail. National lockdowns and circuit breaker measures have forced many businesses and shops to close down. Due to social distancing and less physical interaction, many sectors and industries were suspended.

This hunger crisis, experts say, is global and it is caused by a multitude of factors linked to the coronavirus pandemic: the sudden loss in income for countless millions who were already living hand-to-mouth; the collapse in oil prices; widespread shortages of hard currency from tourism drying up; overseas workers not having earnings to send home; and ongoing problems like climate change, violence, population dislocations and humanitarian disasters.

There is no shortage of food globally, or mass starvation from the outbreak-yet- however, logistical problems in planting, harvesting, and transporting food will leave poor countries exposed in the coming months, especially those reliant on imports.

Increasing unemployment and the loss of income associated with lockdowns are also putting food out of reach for many struggling people. Though global markets have remained steady, the price of basic foods has begun to rise in some countries.

Lockdowns are slowing harvests, while millions of seasonal labourers are unable to work. Food waste has reached damaging levels, with farmers forced to dump perishable produce as the result of supply chain problems, and in the meat industry plants have been forced to close in some countries.

To assuage the impact of this crisis, some governments are fixing prices on food items, delivering free food and putting in place plans to send money transfers to the poorest households.

Yet communities across the world are also taking matters into their own hands. Some are raising money through crowdfunding platforms, while others have begun programs to buy meals for needy families.

However, this will only make a drop in the ocean, as millions have lost their source of income due to the pandemic, and the only way to obtain sufficient food for themselves is with a source of income. The food supply has also been disruputed greatly, and this will worsen the situation.Even after the pandemic, it will take a while for many to find a new source of income to support themselves, and the future will be uncertain.

Racism

what is racism?

Racism is the belief that a race is superior or inferior to another, and discriminating against a race because of their color, ethnicity, or national origin. It can also mean stereotyping that a certain race tends to do a certain thing. For instance, we usually stereotype black people as homeless. However, this is not true as it makes no sense that only this certain race would be homeless.

People often associate racism with acts of abuse or harassment. However, it doesn’t need to involve violent or intimidating behavior. Take racial name-calling and jokes. Or consider situations when people may be excluded from groups or activities because of their race or religion. It may also be making fun of someone’s religion and ethics. what effect it has? how does it affect people? (what impact does it have)

Racism commonly happens at school or work, at places where we meet many different people. But it can happen anywhere, most frequently in the neighborhoods, shops, on public transport and much more. Racism can happen online as well, whether is it offensive comments on social media, inflammatory memes, hateful videos shared online, or things that people might find insulting or hurtful. Cyber-racism has had a significant impact on the growth of racist attitudes.Types of racism( what is racist and what is not?)

There are common misconceptions that calling an African man black for example, is being racist. Being racist is either judging people and stereotyping them based on their race or ethnics, or making racist jokes about another race, or excluding someone because of their skin color.

What is considered being racist?

Physical(in person)

1.stereotyping

stereotyping is the most typical and common way of racism. it is a generalized belief about a category of people. we stereotype that a particular category of people would always have this type of ability, or that they would do this action. This is judged from the outside and without any background knowledge. This is often based on misconceptions, incomplete information, and false generations. For instance, you may stereotype that a black man is always poor and homeless, especially if they are wearing ragged clothes. However, this is not true. Why would only blacks be homeless? Whites can be homeless as well. Thus, this is a stereotype of black people.

2.prejudice and being bias

what is prejudice?It is when one has a preconcevied opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience. this may soemetimes also include stereotyping.For example, people view blacks as being criminals, or having a bad background history. Thus, this may led to people being bias and not employing blacks because of that common misconception that all blacks are like that.

Prejudice and discrimination could affect health in several ways. It could determine group living conditions and life chances, affecting areas such as education, employment, and housing. they may not be so privileged to have the same opportunities and life chances others have.

My opinions and thoughts on racism

I feel that racism differentiates and separates people based on their skin color and this is unfair. Everyone should be treated equally regardless of race, language, or religion. Racism hurts many individuals, communities, and society. Experiencing racism has profound effects on our health and welfare. It can lead to people withdrawing from work or study and can hurt people’s dignity. Those who suffer from racism can be made to feel that they have less freedom, or are second class citizens.

How can we stop racism

Racism is a worldwide global issue and is happening around the globe daily. People of a different race or skin color are being outcasted from the rest or are being treated like second class citizens. People are being refused a job or apartment, simply because that person is of a different color and we are quick to judge and stereotype them.

Racism needs to stop and we need to treat everyone with equal respect regardless of who they are. And this starts with ourselves. We can make a big difference to those around us we meet even with one person. Don’t be too quick to stereotype or judge others.

how can we prevent racism and stop it

Eliminating racism, discrimination of a certain race or colour, or stereotyping, is simple. It starts with ourselves.We should treat everyone equally, regardless of race, language or religion. Lets not make fun of one practices they do in their religion, and respect them.Give everyone a equal opportunity at life, and dont stereotype or misjudge others just from the outside, without knowing their background.

Water shortage/scarcity

What is water shortage?

Water shortage is the lack of freshwater resources to meet water demand. Water shortage occurs when there is more water consumed and used than the amount of water available, and thus the amount of water available is not able to meet the demands. When there is a water shortage, water usage and consumption will be both affected. Water will be more difficult to obtain and prices might be jacked up.

Today, in this blog, we will investigate:

1.What are the different uses of water?

2. What are the causes of water shortage?

3 .How does it impact people and countries?

4. How can we prevent water shortage/solve the issue.

We use water in many ways, for example, drinking, cleaning and economic activities. The water we use is fresh water, which contains a very low amount of salt and is hence suitable for using and drinking.Fresh water can be obtained from rivers, lakes and groundwater.

However, only 2 percent of the world’s water is drinkable and the rest is salt water.And in that tiny percentage, 87 percent of it is frozen in glaciers.Thus we have very limited water for usage, which is why scientists and manufacturers are trying to come up with more efficient ways and cheaper methods of desalination and reverse osmosis.

1.The different uses of water

Economic use refers to water used in agriculture and industry. In agriculture, growing rice uses the most water-about 20 percent of the total water used to grow crops.

Domestic use refers to water used in and around the home. Two thirds of our bodies are made up of water, and we require lots of water to replenish it. An average adult needs to drink about 3 litres of water everyday. Water is also used for cooking, washing and other domestic activities.

Generally, domestic water use accounts for the smallest percentage of all water used. Domestic water use refers to three types of usage:

-Consumption(e.g drinking and cooking)

-Hygiene(.eg bathing and flushing the toliet)

-Amenity use(e.g washing the car, watering the garden)

The volume of water used and way that it is used may differ from household to household. This is because we have different personal habits and household appliances are designed differently.

Economic use

Agriculture

Agriculture uses the greatest amount of water globally. Agriculture refers to the growing of crops for human use, mainly for food. As the world population grows rapidly, the demand for more and faster production of food is increasing and more water is needed to grow more crops to feed people.

Water is crucial for growing fruits, vegetables, grain, coffee, tea and much more. In places with abundant rainfall all year round, less water is needed and used for agriculture because crops are naturally watered by rain.In places where rainfall is low or irregular, more water is used for agriculture because of irrigation.In irrigation, water is obtained from water bodies(rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wells), and is sprayed or watered onto crops. It many also be spread across the land by sprinkler systems.

To meet the world increasing demand for food, more places are relying on irrigation.Thus, more water is used to increase crop yield.Compared to 50 years ago, the amount of water used for irrigation today has increased by 70 percent. The area of irrigated land has also doubled.

Industry

Globally, industrial water use accounts for 22 percent of the total water used. Most of it is used for hydropower and nuclear power, 30 to 40 percent is used for industrial processes such as manufacturing, and 0.5 to 3 percent is used for thermal power generation.

In power generation, large amounts of water are used for the manufacture, maintenance, and cooling of generators. A large portion is however, also lost thorough evaporation, absorption, and leaks. In thermal power(heat converted to electricity) generation, electricity is produced by steam-powered generators.

Water is most likely used in all manufacturing processes. Many processes create lots of heat due to friction and chemical reactions. Water is thus needed to cool down the machinery and equipment. Water is also used to clean the machinery and products. Industries that produce steel, chemicals, paper, and petroleum and some of the major users of water.

Some of the industrial products are used as materials for making other products.Thus, more water is needed to eventually produce the finished product you use. For example, an average car requires about 400 litres of water in its entire production process.

2.The causes of water shortage

Demand factors

Population growth

A major cause of water shortage is the increasing world population. The world population grew from 1.6 billion to 3.1 billion in 1960. As the world population grows at an increasing rate, so does the need for food. However, the production of animal products is extremely water-intensive, due to having to produce more food to feed the animals and raise them.

Worldwide demand for water is doubling every 21 years, or even faster in some countries. Water supply cannot keep up with such demands.Thus world water consumption for domestic and industrial use increases as the population increases.

Most of the world population growth will take place in less developed countries, mostly in Asia and Africa. Thus, rising populations in these countries will have an even greater strain on their water resources.

therefore, in some of these rural and underdeveloped countries, they have to pump groundwater heavily, with some of the wells going as deep as 200 metres to obtain fresh water.

Affluence

Water consumption has increased twice as fast as population growth because of affluence. Being affluent means having wealth and being able to live more comfortably.

Affluent countries are usually developed countries such as the USA, Japan, and Australia, where most of their population can live comfortably, and thus can afford to spend more. People in these countries use more water than those in less developed countries,(China, Vietnam, India).In other words, more developed countries will have a large water footprint per capita.

With more money, people may also start to consume goods that are produced using more water and live a lifestyle that consumes more water.Here are some of the changes in lifestyle that come with increasing wealth.

Water used for ornamental and leisure purposes
Piped water
A
s the world develops, millions of people worldwide will change their water source from the village well to piped water for showers and flush toilets.
More meat consumed
people are able to afford more expensive and water-intensive foods such as meat.
More water-intensive appliances used
People are able to afford water-intensive appliances such as washing machines and dishwashers.
More goods purchased
More people can spend more on goods such as clothing. The textile industry is one that uses a lot of water. For example, manufacturing one cotton t-shirt requires 400 litres of water.

Between 2007 and 2025, water consumption is predicted to rise by 50 percent in less developed countries and 18 percent in developed countries. Much of the increase comes from the poorer countries as more and more people move from rural areas to urban cities.

Supply factors

Seasonal rainfall

Countries near the equator are cooler than the desert areas because much of the heat energy is used in evaporating the large volumes of precipitation that fall there. However, in some countries, rainfall can vary from month to month. This affects the supply of freshwater available for use.

Although India has a high annual precipitation of more than 1200 millimeters, its rainfall is unevenly distributed throughout the year. Most rainfall is received during June and September during the southwest monsoon season, leaving the rest of the year rather dry.

With more than half of India population engaged in farming, the timing and amount of rainfall are crucial for the harvesting of crops. Many farms depend on the rain heavily for their harvest.

Irregular distribution throughout the year in some regions will be intensified by climate change. The earth average temperature is predicted to rise due to the increase in greenhouse gases. This increase in temperatures will cause a change in rainfall patterns and more extreme weather-related hazards such as floods and droughts.

Water pollution

Water pollution is another cause of water shortage. It is the introduction of substances that results in unpleasant or damaging effects to the environment and human health.

Some common pollutants include garbage, chemicals and waste water. These can come from agricultural, industrial and other human activities.

Thus, as a result of these pollutants, the water quality will drop. The water becomes unusable and unsuitable for usage by people and affects the aquatic animals living in the water.

Take, for example, the Ganges River. It is the largest river in India. More than 400 million people live along the river, making it the most populated river basin in the world. It provides water for drinking, bathing, and irrigation. However, pollution in it has threatened this water resource as many industries near the river have inadequate waste treatment and dump their waste directly into the river. Many of these factories use large amounts of chromiun and other chemicals in their production of materials. Surrounding towns also have discharged a large amount of waste into the river. As a result, the water has turned brown.

What impact does water shortage have? (on people and countries)

Domestic impact (increased difficulty in collecting water)

Many developed countries have the luxury of having plentiful and accessible fresh water. We just need to turn on the tap to get a drink, enjoy a hot long shower or wash our clothes. Fresh water is all at our convenience and at our fingertips. We have a seemingly unlimited supply of fresh, clean water, at any time of the year.

However, 1.1 billion people globally lack access to safe drinking water.In the less developed countries, one on five people do not have access to safe water.

This is due to a few reasons. In most of these countries, most water is used for agriculture, leaving little for domestic use. Weather conditions also affect this, as in countries with high temperature, the water in wells and rivers evaporate faster and dry up. Therefore, water was scarce and people had to travel long distances to obtain water.

Water rationing

If water becomes scarce and limited, not everyone will be able to have access to unlimited free water anymore. Water rationing will ration out the water available to everyone equally. water will only be available at certain times of the day.

During water rationing, people will be given a certain amount of water to use during the exercise. All other appliances that use water like taps, toilets or showers will be turned off and will not be in use.

Economic impact

Reduced agricultural yields

Water shortage will hinder economic development as water is needed to produce most goods and services. One industry with the greatest risk is agriculture, which uses 70 percent of the global freshwater supply.Thus, less food will be produced as there will be less yield and less water for industrial production.

Increased cost of industrial production

Freshwater is needed by many industries for various purposes. As water constraint increases, so will the cost of industrial production. The cost of industrial production refers to the cost of producing and manufacturing goods.

Industries, that use water to cool generators and machines also rely heavily on water. For instance, power plants use a lot of water to cool parts of the generators. Thus when there was less water, power plants in Europe reduced their power output. The cut in power production increased the price of power and affected the cost of production in other industries.

Another industry that relies heavily on the water is the beverage industry. Companies producing soft drinks use a lot of water in their production. Besides being the main ingredient, water is also used in other parts of the process such as rinsing, heating, cooling and cleaning. Thus, an increase in water prices will lead to higher production costs.

Political impact(conflict over water supply)

Conflict can arise over water resources when there is not enough water to go around. On a local scale, there can be conflicts between farmers and factories over the use of water in a lake. On a national global scale, problems may arise when states or countries tap into the same water resource.

4. How can we prevent water shortage?

1.Developing more water filtration systems

Having access to water is one thing, but having clean water that is safe to consume is another thing. Filtration systems are crucial in ensuring that freshwater can be put to good use. Ways of filtering and treating freshwater include desalination and reverse osmosis. That’s one of the reasons why companies worldwide are committed to developing sophisticated water filtration systems that produce purified water free from bacteria, microbes, and other contaminants.

2.promoting water awareness

Educate the public more about water shortages and the importance of water in their lives. It has the potential to make lasting positive changes in people use water. It takes every community to cooperate to reduce the threat of water scarcity. This means that every community or family has to play their own part: taking shorter showers, installing low flow toilets, or investing in water reduction appliances. However, it takes time to change people behaviour, and the success of water stewardship depends on whether people want to change their behaviour.

3.Increase local catchment areas

Local catchments rely on rainwater to collect its water from the natural landscape.

Surface catchment refers to the area where rain falls and is collected. Rainwater is collected in rivers, streams, and canals. The water is then channeled to reservoirs where it is stored.

4.Recycle wastewater

Used water may be treated to become drinking water. In Singapore, we have NEWater, which is the result of clever planning and technology. This enables freshwater to be used more than once. Used water thus becomes a new source of water.

As NEWater is purer than tap water, it is ideal for use in certain industries. Currently, it is supplied mainly to water fabrication plants, electronics factories and power plants.

A percentage of the NEWater is mixed with raw water from the reservoirs and treated at the waterworks. When it was first launched, the public was concerned about the idea of treated used water. However, the public is being educated through the NEWater Visitor Centre. Visitors can view the technology used to produce NEWater, and sample bottled NEWater.

With the completion of the fourth and largest NEWater plant in 2010, NEWater can meet 30 percent of Singapore water demand. It is expected to meet 40 percent of Singapore water needs in 2020 and further on and the existing plants are expanded.

Conclusion

Water shortage is happening all around the world, however not much is being done to solve the problem or reduce the threat. 1.1 billion people globally lack access to clean water and a total of 2.7 billion find water scarce for at least one month of the year.People who suffer from water shortage or do not have sufficient water for usage are those who live in poverty or poor infrastructure countries.