Water shortage/scarcity

What is water shortage?

Water shortage is the lack of freshwater resources to meet water demand. Water shortage occurs when there is more water consumed and used than the amount of water available, and thus the amount of water available is not able to meet the demands. When there is a water shortage, water usage and consumption will be both affected. Water will be more difficult to obtain and prices might be jacked up.

Today, in this blog, we will investigate:

1.What are the different uses of water?

2. What are the causes of water shortage?

3 .How does it impact people and countries?

4. How can we prevent water shortage/solve the issue.

We use water in many ways, for example, drinking, cleaning and economic activities. The water we use is fresh water, which contains a very low amount of salt and is hence suitable for using and drinking.Fresh water can be obtained from rivers, lakes and groundwater.

However, only 2 percent of the world’s water is drinkable and the rest is salt water.And in that tiny percentage, 87 percent of it is frozen in glaciers.Thus we have very limited water for usage, which is why scientists and manufacturers are trying to come up with more efficient ways and cheaper methods of desalination and reverse osmosis.

1.The different uses of water

Economic use refers to water used in agriculture and industry. In agriculture, growing rice uses the most water-about 20 percent of the total water used to grow crops.

Domestic use refers to water used in and around the home. Two thirds of our bodies are made up of water, and we require lots of water to replenish it. An average adult needs to drink about 3 litres of water everyday. Water is also used for cooking, washing and other domestic activities.

Generally, domestic water use accounts for the smallest percentage of all water used. Domestic water use refers to three types of usage:

-Consumption(e.g drinking and cooking)

-Hygiene(.eg bathing and flushing the toliet)

-Amenity use(e.g washing the car, watering the garden)

The volume of water used and way that it is used may differ from household to household. This is because we have different personal habits and household appliances are designed differently.

Economic use

Agriculture

Agriculture uses the greatest amount of water globally. Agriculture refers to the growing of crops for human use, mainly for food. As the world population grows rapidly, the demand for more and faster production of food is increasing and more water is needed to grow more crops to feed people.

Water is crucial for growing fruits, vegetables, grain, coffee, tea and much more. In places with abundant rainfall all year round, less water is needed and used for agriculture because crops are naturally watered by rain.In places where rainfall is low or irregular, more water is used for agriculture because of irrigation.In irrigation, water is obtained from water bodies(rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wells), and is sprayed or watered onto crops. It many also be spread across the land by sprinkler systems.

To meet the world increasing demand for food, more places are relying on irrigation.Thus, more water is used to increase crop yield.Compared to 50 years ago, the amount of water used for irrigation today has increased by 70 percent. The area of irrigated land has also doubled.

Industry

Globally, industrial water use accounts for 22 percent of the total water used. Most of it is used for hydropower and nuclear power, 30 to 40 percent is used for industrial processes such as manufacturing, and 0.5 to 3 percent is used for thermal power generation.

In power generation, large amounts of water are used for the manufacture, maintenance, and cooling of generators. A large portion is however, also lost thorough evaporation, absorption, and leaks. In thermal power(heat converted to electricity) generation, electricity is produced by steam-powered generators.

Water is most likely used in all manufacturing processes. Many processes create lots of heat due to friction and chemical reactions. Water is thus needed to cool down the machinery and equipment. Water is also used to clean the machinery and products. Industries that produce steel, chemicals, paper, and petroleum and some of the major users of water.

Some of the industrial products are used as materials for making other products.Thus, more water is needed to eventually produce the finished product you use. For example, an average car requires about 400 litres of water in its entire production process.

2.The causes of water shortage

Demand factors

Population growth

A major cause of water shortage is the increasing world population. The world population grew from 1.6 billion to 3.1 billion in 1960. As the world population grows at an increasing rate, so does the need for food. However, the production of animal products is extremely water-intensive, due to having to produce more food to feed the animals and raise them.

Worldwide demand for water is doubling every 21 years, or even faster in some countries. Water supply cannot keep up with such demands.Thus world water consumption for domestic and industrial use increases as the population increases.

Most of the world population growth will take place in less developed countries, mostly in Asia and Africa. Thus, rising populations in these countries will have an even greater strain on their water resources.

therefore, in some of these rural and underdeveloped countries, they have to pump groundwater heavily, with some of the wells going as deep as 200 metres to obtain fresh water.

Affluence

Water consumption has increased twice as fast as population growth because of affluence. Being affluent means having wealth and being able to live more comfortably.

Affluent countries are usually developed countries such as the USA, Japan, and Australia, where most of their population can live comfortably, and thus can afford to spend more. People in these countries use more water than those in less developed countries,(China, Vietnam, India).In other words, more developed countries will have a large water footprint per capita.

With more money, people may also start to consume goods that are produced using more water and live a lifestyle that consumes more water.Here are some of the changes in lifestyle that come with increasing wealth.

Water used for ornamental and leisure purposes
Piped water
A
s the world develops, millions of people worldwide will change their water source from the village well to piped water for showers and flush toilets.
More meat consumed
people are able to afford more expensive and water-intensive foods such as meat.
More water-intensive appliances used
People are able to afford water-intensive appliances such as washing machines and dishwashers.
More goods purchased
More people can spend more on goods such as clothing. The textile industry is one that uses a lot of water. For example, manufacturing one cotton t-shirt requires 400 litres of water.

Between 2007 and 2025, water consumption is predicted to rise by 50 percent in less developed countries and 18 percent in developed countries. Much of the increase comes from the poorer countries as more and more people move from rural areas to urban cities.

Supply factors

Seasonal rainfall

Countries near the equator are cooler than the desert areas because much of the heat energy is used in evaporating the large volumes of precipitation that fall there. However, in some countries, rainfall can vary from month to month. This affects the supply of freshwater available for use.

Although India has a high annual precipitation of more than 1200 millimeters, its rainfall is unevenly distributed throughout the year. Most rainfall is received during June and September during the southwest monsoon season, leaving the rest of the year rather dry.

With more than half of India population engaged in farming, the timing and amount of rainfall are crucial for the harvesting of crops. Many farms depend on the rain heavily for their harvest.

Irregular distribution throughout the year in some regions will be intensified by climate change. The earth average temperature is predicted to rise due to the increase in greenhouse gases. This increase in temperatures will cause a change in rainfall patterns and more extreme weather-related hazards such as floods and droughts.

Water pollution

Water pollution is another cause of water shortage. It is the introduction of substances that results in unpleasant or damaging effects to the environment and human health.

Some common pollutants include garbage, chemicals and waste water. These can come from agricultural, industrial and other human activities.

Thus, as a result of these pollutants, the water quality will drop. The water becomes unusable and unsuitable for usage by people and affects the aquatic animals living in the water.

Take, for example, the Ganges River. It is the largest river in India. More than 400 million people live along the river, making it the most populated river basin in the world. It provides water for drinking, bathing, and irrigation. However, pollution in it has threatened this water resource as many industries near the river have inadequate waste treatment and dump their waste directly into the river. Many of these factories use large amounts of chromiun and other chemicals in their production of materials. Surrounding towns also have discharged a large amount of waste into the river. As a result, the water has turned brown.

What impact does water shortage have? (on people and countries)

Domestic impact (increased difficulty in collecting water)

Many developed countries have the luxury of having plentiful and accessible fresh water. We just need to turn on the tap to get a drink, enjoy a hot long shower or wash our clothes. Fresh water is all at our convenience and at our fingertips. We have a seemingly unlimited supply of fresh, clean water, at any time of the year.

However, 1.1 billion people globally lack access to safe drinking water.In the less developed countries, one on five people do not have access to safe water.

This is due to a few reasons. In most of these countries, most water is used for agriculture, leaving little for domestic use. Weather conditions also affect this, as in countries with high temperature, the water in wells and rivers evaporate faster and dry up. Therefore, water was scarce and people had to travel long distances to obtain water.

Water rationing

If water becomes scarce and limited, not everyone will be able to have access to unlimited free water anymore. Water rationing will ration out the water available to everyone equally. water will only be available at certain times of the day.

During water rationing, people will be given a certain amount of water to use during the exercise. All other appliances that use water like taps, toilets or showers will be turned off and will not be in use.

Economic impact

Reduced agricultural yields

Water shortage will hinder economic development as water is needed to produce most goods and services. One industry with the greatest risk is agriculture, which uses 70 percent of the global freshwater supply.Thus, less food will be produced as there will be less yield and less water for industrial production.

Increased cost of industrial production

Freshwater is needed by many industries for various purposes. As water constraint increases, so will the cost of industrial production. The cost of industrial production refers to the cost of producing and manufacturing goods.

Industries, that use water to cool generators and machines also rely heavily on water. For instance, power plants use a lot of water to cool parts of the generators. Thus when there was less water, power plants in Europe reduced their power output. The cut in power production increased the price of power and affected the cost of production in other industries.

Another industry that relies heavily on the water is the beverage industry. Companies producing soft drinks use a lot of water in their production. Besides being the main ingredient, water is also used in other parts of the process such as rinsing, heating, cooling and cleaning. Thus, an increase in water prices will lead to higher production costs.

Political impact(conflict over water supply)

Conflict can arise over water resources when there is not enough water to go around. On a local scale, there can be conflicts between farmers and factories over the use of water in a lake. On a national global scale, problems may arise when states or countries tap into the same water resource.

4. How can we prevent water shortage?

1.Developing more water filtration systems

Having access to water is one thing, but having clean water that is safe to consume is another thing. Filtration systems are crucial in ensuring that freshwater can be put to good use. Ways of filtering and treating freshwater include desalination and reverse osmosis. That’s one of the reasons why companies worldwide are committed to developing sophisticated water filtration systems that produce purified water free from bacteria, microbes, and other contaminants.

2.promoting water awareness

Educate the public more about water shortages and the importance of water in their lives. It has the potential to make lasting positive changes in people use water. It takes every community to cooperate to reduce the threat of water scarcity. This means that every community or family has to play their own part: taking shorter showers, installing low flow toilets, or investing in water reduction appliances. However, it takes time to change people behaviour, and the success of water stewardship depends on whether people want to change their behaviour.

3.Increase local catchment areas

Local catchments rely on rainwater to collect its water from the natural landscape.

Surface catchment refers to the area where rain falls and is collected. Rainwater is collected in rivers, streams, and canals. The water is then channeled to reservoirs where it is stored.

4.Recycle wastewater

Used water may be treated to become drinking water. In Singapore, we have NEWater, which is the result of clever planning and technology. This enables freshwater to be used more than once. Used water thus becomes a new source of water.

As NEWater is purer than tap water, it is ideal for use in certain industries. Currently, it is supplied mainly to water fabrication plants, electronics factories and power plants.

A percentage of the NEWater is mixed with raw water from the reservoirs and treated at the waterworks. When it was first launched, the public was concerned about the idea of treated used water. However, the public is being educated through the NEWater Visitor Centre. Visitors can view the technology used to produce NEWater, and sample bottled NEWater.

With the completion of the fourth and largest NEWater plant in 2010, NEWater can meet 30 percent of Singapore water demand. It is expected to meet 40 percent of Singapore water needs in 2020 and further on and the existing plants are expanded.

Conclusion

Water shortage is happening all around the world, however not much is being done to solve the problem or reduce the threat. 1.1 billion people globally lack access to clean water and a total of 2.7 billion find water scarce for at least one month of the year.People who suffer from water shortage or do not have sufficient water for usage are those who live in poverty or poor infrastructure countries.

Global challenges that technology can solve

Technology is constantly evolving and advancing. it has become so advanced and we never thought that it would revolutionise the world.We never thought that it would be so advanced to the point where it can solve global issues.

Today, technology performs a major role in solving a wide range of problems including environmental , social issue, employment, and many more. Here are some major challenges in the world that can be solved by technology.

1.Carbon emissions (solving environmental issues)

Rising of global temperature is a major threat for everyone. Many polices have been setup by the government to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from factories and cars, burning produces carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide traps heat in the earth atmosphere. Removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere can help to reduce the temperature. But, it would be really expensive.

Currently, many startups are searching for ways of recycling carbon dioxide into products. It might be helpful, but we require the cheapest way to be able to store the billons of carbon dioxide in these fuels.

2. Secure driverless cars(accidents and drunk driving)

Today, cars have been used for millions of miles on the roads. Most car are equipped with modern technology e.g allowing the user to open the car doors without a key, a touch screen maps that can guide driver to his destination. However, with technology, driverless cars will be a reality soon and will be mass produce for the market.

However, there are many implications that come with it. They are not working properly in disordered traffic, and in weather conditions like snow and fog.

Car accident is a major issue in the world, millions have been involved in accidents because of either the driver or the pedestrian. If self driving cars are extensively deployed, then it can minimise accidents and car crashes. Drunk driving will no longer be a thing with self driving cars.Without a human physically driving the car, the car can continuously drive without getting tired or being distracted.

3.Earthquake prediction (natural disasters)

Earthquake is one of the devastating natural calamities in which over 100,000 people died in the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami—prompted by one of the most powerful earthquakes ever recorded and it had killed around a quarter of a million people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and elsewhere. Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. We are able to predict hurricanes days much in advance, but we are helpless in predicting earthquakes. Scientists need to analyses past disasters to find patterns in natural phenomena. They study tracking radar systems of seismic waves deep inside the Earth.

We only can predict earthquakes by trends, patterns and by analyzing past disasters. Predicting earthquakes with some self-assurance would let the planners discover some long-lasting solutions. Even a few hours’ before a warning can help people to leave unsafe areas, and millions of lives can be saved.

4.Energy-efficient desalination(getting more fresh water)

The quantity of salt water on earth is about 50 times as there is fresh water. The increase in the world’s population and climate change increase droughts and the call for fresh water is going to develop more. Israel is getting most of its household water from the sea by making the world’s biggest reverse-osmosis desalination facilities. But however, desalination requires a lot of energy and thus it is not pratical to be used worldwide. New types of membranes used for reverse osmosis, electrochemical techniques may be valuable to make salty water useful for irrigation and farming. Similarly, the use of adaptation technologies to create drinking water from the ocean ought to be the main concern.

(Why can’t we drink seawater?)

Seawater is toxic to humans as your body will not be able to get rid of all the salt that comes from seawater.Your body normally gets rid of salt by having your kidneys produce urine, but it needs to dilute the salt in freshwater to be able to produce urine.So by drinking seawater, you will need to urinate more than you drank, which will make you thirster and eventually you will die out of dehydration.

5.Climate change(environmental issues)

Technology can create more efficient buildings and streets, from smart lightning to non-polluting air conditioners, washing machines, fridges and heating systems.There are applications connected to sensors which can measure your house usage of water and electricity and can improve it.In Barcelona, sensors have been installed to monitor the city’s noise, rain, and air quality, and a smart irrigation system has been used to address drought conditions and improve water conservation during farming.

Right now, transport is a major producer of carbon emissions, and represent 23 percent of global energy related CO2 emissions.Electric cars like Tesla may offer a more promising solution to this issue, once more efficient charging and battery-charging technology becomes avaliable. Sensors embedded into roads can also monitor parking and traffic flow to reduce congestion and pollution.However, once driverless cars become available, cars can always be on the move, and parking will be one less issue to worry about.

6.Disaster relief

After disasters in rural areas, homes will usually be destroyed, and so will buildings and other structures. This means that survivors will have nowhere to live and get necessary supplies.It is hard for the emergency services to know where to drop off the supplies as there is no form of communication between them.However, innovation in technology is providing new and more effective to cope with the aftermath of a disaster, from helping survivors to communicate, and to helping emergency services gain precious time and information.

Drones can be used to drop off much-needed aid packages to isolated areas, and mobile communication applications can help emergency services respond more quickly and effectively by providing crucial information quickly.

Conclusion

Technology can be used in many ways and people are innovating to make use of it. It has become so advanced to the point where we can use it to solve global issues.All in all, it still cannot prevent natural disasters and natural phemenons from occurring, even though we can predict them. In conclusion, technology is very powerful. It can revolutionise the whole world and now is even being used to solve global issues.That is probably why it is the best invention of the 21st century.

credit to these sources:

https://www.chivas.com/en-EN/latest-from-chivas/the-venture-blog/6-issues-technology-could-solve-in-the-future

https://industrywired.com/ten-big-global-challenges-technology-could-solve/

Technological Disruption

what is technological disruption?

Disruptive technology is an innovation that significantly alters the way that consumers, industries, or businesses operate. Disruptive technology is a newly developed technology that creates much more value than the existing technology and has the potential to drastically change the way to work, live, do the business, and increase the economic output.

How has technology changed the world?

Technology has revolutionized the world and our daily lives.it has created amazing tools and resources and has put useful information all at our convenience. it has changed the way we communicate, play, eat, sleep, and study. technology is disrupting us socially, disrupting the economy and business, and even our education system. has technology disruption benefitted us more or has caused more harm?

1.Social disruption(work, play, eat, study)

Entertainment

the way we entertain ourselves has also changed. streaming services like Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, and Hulu have overtaken TV. with your mobile devices, you can watch and stream the tv shows you want, and how you want. these streaming services are overtaking broadcast channels as they provide more convenient and allows the user to choose what they want to watch. you no longer have to anticipate watching the show you want to watch at a certain time. thus, some of these broadcasting channels are also coming up with ways to move their shows to streaming websites.

Communication

The advancement of technology has made communication unbelievably fast and convenient. It’s incredible to look back and see how much easier communication has gotten over the years. Communication tools offer one of the most significant examples of how quickly technology has evolved.

in the past, when you wanted to send a message or talk to someone, you would write a letter ,send faxes, or find a wired telephone.To connect with someone in society today, you have many more efficient options at your fingertips. You can send them a message on social media, text them, video chat, email, or put a call through.

Payment and transferring funds

you no longer have to go to the bank or atm to pay your bills or transfer funds to someone else.with cell phones and a banking app, you now are able to manage all your necessary bill payments online.there is no longer the need to spend time queueing up to pay your bills or waiting to buy your food.with a few taps and clicks, you can order food right to your doorstep or pay your bills conveniently in a single spot.

2.Economic disruption(the way we do business, e-commerce,e.g)

as technology progresses and is advancing, businesses and companies also have to move along. companies are thus starting to move their businesses online and learning how to do e-commerce, advertise on social media apps and much more.technology has changed the way we do business and the way we advertise and sell our products.some companies and businesses are failing as they might still be doing brick and mortar business, and are not changing with the times and moving their business online.

technology has also taken over and replaced many jobs and are threatening many industries. here are a few industries and jobs that have been replaced by technology.

1.Travel websites such as Expedia (EXPE), Kayak, and Travelocity have eliminated the need for human travel agents.


2.Newspapers have seen their circulation numbers decline steadily, replaced by online media and blogs. Increasingly, computer software is actually writing news stories, especially local news and sporting event results.


3.Language translation is becoming more and more accurate, reducing the need for human translators. The same goes for dictation and proof-reading.


3.Online bookstores such as Amazon have forced brick-and-mortar booksellers to close their doors permanently. Additionally, the ability to self-publish and to distribute e-books is negatively affecting publishers and printers.

4.Uber, Grab and other company-owned taxi companies are taking over traditional taxis due to its convenience and allowing its user to be able to call a taxi beforehand to its location to reduce waiting time.


5.Driverless cars, such as those being developed by Google , may prove to replace all sorts of driving jobs, including bus and truck drivers, taxi drivers, and chauffeurs.

6.fast food companies are also starting to invest in computerized kiosks, where there is no need for a waiter to take the customers orders and the kiosks can take the customers orders without the need of humans.cash registers are also being replaced by retail cashiers and the customers can check out themselves without the need of a cash register.

7.traditional television broadcasting is being replaced by streaming services such as Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Prime Video.People are dropping their cable or satellite TV services opting to stream online instead.

As we can see, many industries are making use of technology to do the jobs that involve human labour, as it is much more convenient, saves time and might even be less costly than hiring so many workers.in the future, we might have driverless vehicles and technology will be replacing many other jobs. jobs which involve a lot of manual labour and that repeat the same process will be lost to technology advancement.those who can interface with technology will likely succeed than those who can accomplish physical labour.

3.Technological disruption to education system

technology is a powerful tool that can transform education in many ways, from making it easier for teachers to create instruction materials to enabling new ways for people to learn and work together, from making it easier for teachers to create instruction manuals to enabling new ways for people to learn and work together.

  1. finding information

back when you wanted to know the definition of a word or wanted to research more about what you learnt in school, you would usually have to visit the library and find reference materials. that is now a thing of the past. with the internet, you can now find what you are looking for just by typing into the search engine.there are countless blogs and articles out there that can help you discover information that you might have never knew about that subject or information outside the textbook.

2.Online group collaboration


with apps like Zoom and Google Meet, teachers can now host online meetings and lessons without having to be in the classroom.the idea of group study has been improved in the digital world.students now no longer have to get together physically to discuss or collaborate for a group project. with messaging and video conferencing apps, they can now collaborate online and are also able to share files and notes, work together on documents, instant message or email.

3.Fun learning

The utilization of technology has made learning significantly more fun than any other time in recent memory. teachers are posting more lessons and assignments for students to do online. the lessons are usually accompanied with interactive videos that can help the students to understand better.

Students that may struggle to understand a certain subject can search for a tutorial video online. Videos or live streaming content can offer an alternate approach to a thought and better understanding of a concept or subject. These videos can allow an interesting and interactive approach to learning that might be more easily digested.

Conclusion

all in all, technology has its good and bad, and technology disruption may be changing the world for the better or for the worse.technology has disrupted the economy, many industries, and has revolutionised the way we live our life, and carry out our daily activities. things will no longer be the same, as technology is only constantly improvising and developing.as technology progresses, we must adapt to the new ways and accept that those traditional methods will soon be left behind and that we have to keep innovating and adapt to the present.

credit to these sources:

https://www.aginginplace.org/technology-in-our-life-today-and-how-it-has-changed/

https://www.trustradius.com/buyer-blog/how-technology-improves-education

The Digital Divide

  1. What is a digital divide?

 It is a term that refers to the gap between demographics and regions that have access to modern information and communications technology, and those that don’t or have restricted access. The technology can include the smart phone, personal computers and the Internet.

It is called a digital divide as the world is divided into two with countries that have easy access to  the internet, and have their own personal technological devices and those who do not even have proper network infrastructure or might not even have computers and internet.

For example, certain countries that blocks a useful search engine and access to social media due to political ideology.

This divide typically exists between those in
– urban cities and those in rural areas.
– between the uneducated and the educated.
– between the more industrially developed countries and less developed countries.
– between ideologist countries and democratic countries.
– between the well off and the unfortunate families.
– between the boomers and millennial.

2. Why is digital divide unfair?

Digital divide is unfair as people in some countries who do not have access to the Internet is unable to learn as fast compared to those with the Internet. For example, if they want to learn about a certain word or want to know more about what they learnt in school, the ones with easy access to the internet can just check the definition of what they want to know on a search engine, whereas those without internet might have to go looking in dictionaries and might have to go to the library to find out which book is relevant to what they want to know.

 There are also countries with sufficient funds and are able to let their community have the internet but they choose to disallow their community from using it because they might not want to disclose information or do not want their community to have too much knowledge about the world and restrict the people to become knowledgeable and thus might be able to overpower the government.

3. The impact of Digital Divide
Digital divide is unfair as in some parts of the world, some people have faster and more convenient methods of learning and some people are not as fortunate and are not able to afford these technological devices, and thus they cannot learn as quick compared to those with internet.

60% on the world are still offline and 6 billion people have no high speed broadband to learn and work online.

4. How can we narrow the bridge the digital divide?

a. Encourage the establishment of cyber clubs

We must set up more cyber clubs in rural areas, and people that have no access to the internet or no computer at home can come to these cyber clubs to use the computer with internet access to learn.

b. Encourage schools to educate students on the importance of digital literacy

Schools should teach their students more about digital literacy. This equip students with technological skills which are essential in todays world. The computer skills is now required in all jobs and applicable in most workplaces in the world, especially in developed countries. It is the norm for employers to expect their workers to know how to use the basics of Microsoft Word, Excel and Powerpoint and even some popular social media sites. School should incorporate information technology as a core module in the curriculum and educator must teach students on technological work that can help them in getting a job.

c. To offer free computer training to the public

Universities and organizations must invest in e-learning platform and knowledge sharing system where they provide free computer training to those who without access to digital literacy, for example, we can create a web portal for the boomer to teach them the basic skill on writing letters on google docs, using the google search engine to find valuable information and to keep in touch with their love ones face to face using google hangout.

d .Give tutorials on social media platforms

The social media is a powerful channel. The people with the knowledge can share and people without the information can learn from the platform. I advocate people to share your skills and knowledge online. With such caring and sharing initiatives from many people, the world is going to be a better place to live, play and work.

Some websites that i like to share for e-learning.

CS50: Introduction to Computer Science
https://online-learning.harvard.edu/course/cs50-introduction-computer-science?delta=0
In this course, i learned the basic of programming including C, PHP and Javascript, CSS and HTML.

I highly recommend this online course for anyone who is enthusiastic on how to develop games and websites.

How to Use GarageBand: A Step-By-Step Guide

https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/download-guide-to-garageband/

This guide may be helpful for those who are looking to make a song with GarageBand but are unsure of how to do so, as GarageBand is not so straightforward and thus you may not know how to sync the instruments well together.

In conclusion.

Education is one way out of poverty.

We must work towards on bridging the digital divide to give everyone a equal chance on learning. Economically, a citizen can easily network, learn new business ideas, and transact online globally. The next generation of students will also experience better learning as technology continues developing and changing the gap between the rich and the poor is also likely to be narrowed, and thus this gives the poor a chance to empower themselves.

Credit to sources:

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/digital-divide

other sources from Google